In the relentless consequences of climate change, the impacts stretch far beyond rising temperatures and melting ice caps. For people in the world’s poorest countries, the consequences worsen existing socio-economic gaps, challenging the very essence of survival. Climate change is hitting those in poverty harder, making recovery from climate-induced disasters even tougher. Extreme weather events, natural hazards, and resource shortages directly threaten the lives of people in poverty. It’s estimated that by 2030, climate change could push an additional 120 million people into poverty, emphasizing the urgency of addressing this global issue and critical call for practical solutions. (Walsh, 2020)
Impact of Climate Change on Latin America and the Caribbean
Climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is set to worsen existing inequalities, with the most vulnerable populations facing severe consequences. Projections suggest a staggering up to 300% increase in extreme poverty in the region by 2030, emphasizing the urgency of addressing the multifaceted impacts of climate change on the poor.
Although Latin America and the Caribbean only generate 10% of greenhouse gas emissions, they already suffer some of the worst effects of global warming. Cyclones, hurricanes, floods, droughts, rising sea levels are causing an increase in migratory movements, putting the lives of millions of people in the region at risk, both in cities and in the countryside. Climate change also impacts basic infrastructure, the supply of clean water, food production, and electricity generation, jeopardizing the population’s livelihoods and basic services with losses and damages whose economic value can exceed 2% of annual GDP. (Wellenstein, 2022)
While climate change presents daunting challenges, the World Bank and countries in the region have tools to safeguard welfare against adversity. Initiatives such as education and healthcare access, safe water and sanitation, ecosystem management, climate-smart agriculture, and housing retrofitting have proven effective in helping communities adapt and respond to climate change impacts. Social safety nets play a crucial role in enabling communities to build back better in the face of climate-induced adversities. Ultimately, the call for green, resilient, and inclusive development underscores the importance of sustainable growth as a key response to the unprecedented combination of familiar threats posed by climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean. (Effects of Climate on Latin America and the Caribbean, n.d.)
Impact of Climate Change on the African Continent
Africa, a continent least responsible for global greenhouse gas emissions, finds itself on the frontline of climate change impacts. Despite contributing minimally to the environmental crisis, Africa is grappling with accelerated temperature increases, heightened climate-related hazards, and a 34% decline in agricultural productivity growth since 1961. The consequences ripple across societies, exacerbating food insecurity, displacement, and conflict while taking a toll on ecosystems and economies. Economic losses are projected to reach between US$ 290 billion and US$ 440 billion, underscoring the urgent need for increased global mitigation efforts and local adaptation investments. (WMO, 2023)
Adding to this complexity is the undeniable intersection of poverty and climate change. With nearly 37% of the population living in extreme poverty as of 2020, Africa has battled persistent economic challenges over the past five decades. The multidimensional nature of poverty, encompassing inadequate access to education, healthcare, and job opportunities, underscores the depth of the issue. Climate change further amplifies these challenges, as extreme weather events disproportionately affect vulnerable communities, creating a destructive feedback loop. (Tsitati, n.d.)
To break this cycle, a comprehensive approach is imperative. African nations are taking strides towards renewable energy, climate-smart agriculture, and community-based adaptation initiatives. However, international collaboration, financial assistance, and technology transfer are crucial in supporting these efforts. By addressing the intertwined challenges of poverty and climate change, Africa can pave the way for sustainable development, fostering resilience and safeguarding the well-being of its people and the health of its ecosystems for generations to come. (WMO, 2023)
Impact of Climate Change on East Asia and Pacific Region
Climate change presents formidable challenges to environmental stability, economic growth, and human development in the East Asia and Pacific region. Small island nations, particularly vulnerable to climate-related extreme weather events, face an existential threat from rising sea levels. Without concerted action, between 3.3 million and 7.5 million people in the region could plunge into poverty by 2030. Despite these challenges, the region plays a crucial role in global climate efforts, contributing 39 percent of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions and 60 percent of global coal consumption. (Climate and Development in East Asia and Pacific Region, 2023)
However, in the East Asia and Pacific region most countries have the potential to address the climate crisis effectively. All countries in the region have committed to the Paris Agreement, and several major economies have recently pledged ambitious commitments to reduce emissions and achieve carbon neutrality. To navigate the dual challenges of climate crisis and development goals, countries in the region must prioritize urgent actions. This includes building resilience to climate impacts, adopting sustainable rice cultivation methods, safeguarding forests and natural areas as carbon sinks, transitioning to renewable energy, and finding innovative financing solutions for emission reduction. Certain nations, such as the Republic of the Marshall Islands, comprise coral atolls—ring-shaped coral reefs encircling a central lagoon—and will encounter difficulties in adapting to environmental changes. Specifically, smaller island nations positioned just a few meters above sea level will confront substantial challenges in adjusting to the consequences of rising sea levels.
The World Bank has been a longstanding partner in the region’s climate change efforts. Through knowledge dissemination, data collection, financial support, and collaboration with governments, the World Bank has played a significant role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, enhancing climate resilience, and preparing for natural disasters. In fiscal year 2023, 39 percent of the new World Bank commitments in East Asia and Pacific, amounting to $2.9 billion, contributed to climate action. (Climate and Development in East Asia and Pacific Region, 2023)
The intersection of climate change and poverty has prompted the development of emerging policies aimed at addressing the complex challenges faced by vulnerable communities. Globally, there’s a growing recognition of the need for innovative and comprehensive policy frameworks that integrate climate adaptation with poverty alleviation strategies. Governments, NGOs, and international organizations are increasingly collaborating to design initiatives that not only mitigate the impact of climate change but also uplift impoverished communities.
One initiative gaining traction is the concept of “Climate Justice,” emphasizing the ethical responsibility to address the disparities in both the causes and effects of climate change. Climate justice advocates argue for equitable solutions that prioritize the needs and rights of the most vulnerable, ensuring they aren’t disproportionately burdened by the consequences of climate change. This involves considering historical and current contributions to greenhouse gas emissions and acknowledging that marginalized communities often bear the brunt of environmental degradation. (Simons, 2020)
Climate justice policies seek to empower vulnerable populations by providing them with the resources and support needed to adapt to changing environmental conditions. This includes investing in sustainable livelihoods, improving access to education and healthcare, and ensuring that these communities have a voice in decision-making processes related to climate policies. By aligning climate action with poverty alleviation, these policies aim to create a more just and sustainable future where the impacts of climate change are shared equitably across all segments of society. (UNICEF, 2022) (Simons, 2020)
Loss and Damage Fund
At the international level, recent climate conferences, including the 28th Conference of the Parties (COP28) held in Dubai in November 2023, have seen significant policy advancements. The operationalization of a loss-and-damage fund signifies a commitment to holding major fossil fuel polluters accountable for the irreversible and severe costs caused by climate-related events. This marks a historic breakthrough in addressing the economic losses, cultural impacts, and biodiversity losses associated with climate breakdown.
In the context of climate change, “loss and damage” means the serious and irreversible costs caused by things like extreme weather and rising sea levels. It’s about holding big polluters accountable for the impact of climate change, including economic losses like lives and homes, as well as non-economic losses like culture and biodiversity. Money for dealing with loss and damage is separate from funds for preventing or adapting to climate change, and it’s meant to help less wealthy countries handle the effects of climate change. People who support this idea emphasize the need for fairness in both the causes and effects of climate change. (Paris Agreement Cooperative Implementation , n.d.)
For example, in May 2022, north-central Bangladesh faced severe flash floods triggered by heavy rains, causing extensive damage to farmers’ fields and affecting around 2 million people. The disaster, intensified by climate change, resulted not only in economic losses but also deeply impacted the lives and well-being of vulnerable communities. A study led by environmental researcher Douwe van Schie revealed that the loss and damage experienced by individuals were strongly tied to their values and belief systems. The plight of Hindu women from marginalized castes, the grief over the loss of a sacred banyan tree, and the perceived shame of men unable to feed their families highlighted the diverse and profound impacts of climate change on communities. (Vaidyanathan, 2024)
In response to the urgent need for compensation, COP28 marked a historic decision. Nations agreed to establish a loss-and-damage fund, initially funded with $661 million in donations. While the fund is seen as a step towards climate justice, many researchers express concerns about its adequacy and the challenges of allocating funds. The fund, designed to assist developing countries particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts, is yet to finalize key details, including the allocation mechanism. As debates continue, questions arise about how to fairly identify the most deserving recipients, considering both economic and non-economic losses, and how to involve affected communities in decision-making processes to ensure effective recovery.
Community-Based Adaptation (CBA)
Community-Based Adaptation (CBA) stands out as a crucial approach to addressing the profound challenges posed by climate change to impoverished communities, particularly those in developing nations. The essence of CBA lies in providing planned, participatory, and context-specific adaptation support, addressing the unique challenges faced by each community.
One prominent example of successful CBA in action is the “Project Surya” initiative in India. This community-driven project focuses on reducing black carbon emissions from traditional cooking methods, which not only contributes to climate change but also has adverse health effects. By introducing cleaner and more efficient cookstoves, the project not only mitigates climate impacts but also improves indoor air quality, benefiting the health of local communities. The success of Project Surya showcases how CBA can address multiple challenges simultaneously.
In Kenya, the “Community-Based Adaptation to Climate Change through Integrated Water Resources Management” project empowers local communities to manage water resources sustainably. Through the construction of water infrastructure, community members enhance their resilience to changing climate conditions, ensuring a stable water supply for agriculture and daily needs. This example demonstrates the effectiveness of CBA in building climate resilience at the grassroots level. (Kirkby, 2015 )
Another noteworthy example is the “Community-Based Adaptation to Climate Change in Bangladesh” project, which focuses on improving agricultural practices to cope with changing climate patterns. Through the introduction of climate-resilient crops, sustainable farming techniques, and community-led disaster preparedness measures, this initiative enhances the adaptive capacity of local communities, reducing their vulnerability to climate-related risks.
The operational framework of CBA involves a collaborative and inclusive process, emphasizing community-driven initiatives that are sustainable over the long term. It begins with a comprehensive assessment of vulnerabilities to climate stress, combining technical evaluations with participatory self-assessments. For impoverished and vulnerable communities, CBA serves as a lifeline by providing targeted adaptation support that is both inclusive and sustainable. (NASA, n.d.)
These tangible successes underscore the importance of tailoring adaptation strategies to local contexts, preserving autonomy, and producing outcomes that are both relevant and acceptable to the affected populations.
The intersection of climate change and poverty presents a critical global challenge that demands immediate attention and concerted efforts. As governments, donors, and humanitarian agencies unite to address this crisis, urgent action is paramount to prevent the deepening of global inequalities and secure a sustainable future for all. Recent international conferences, such as COP 28, underscore a collective commitment to fortify countries against the challenges posed by climate change, signaling a united front in the battle for a more sustainable future. The emergence of innovative policies and the success of community-based adaptation initiatives offer hope for a future where the impacts of climate change on vulnerable communities are mitigated, and sustainable development becomes a reality.
By Jarett Emert